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Acquisition of Vocabulary

for Grade 5

5th Earth Science5th Life Science5th Physical Science5th Science Technology5th Science InquiryScience Ways of Knowing

 
Earth and Space Science
The Universe
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
  Websites for Students

  1.  Describe how night and day are caused by Earth's rotation.

Why does Earth have day and night?
Day (light) and night (dark) are caused by Earth's spin on its axis. Earth turns or rotates one time every 24 hours. The part of Earth that is facing the Sun experiences day, and the part facing away from the Sun experiences night. Earth spins counterclockwise, so daylight moves across the globe from east to west.
 

Earth and Space Science
The Universe
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
  Websites for Students

  2.  Explain that Earth is one of several planets to orbit the sun, and that the moon orbits Earth.

 

What is our Solar System?


Graphic from Aerospace.Web

The mass of the sun is so great that its gravity is able to hold the planets in an orbit around it.

 
 

  • The planets orbit the sun.

  • The Earth is the 3rd planet from the sun.

  • The Earth takes 365 days (1 year) to orbit the sun.

  • The Earth rotates (spins) on its axis one time every 24 hours as it goes around the sun.

 

The mass of the Earth is so great that its gravity is able to hold the moon in an orbit around it! It takes about 28 days for the moon to orbit the Earth.


Graphic

 

therefore...

The moon orbits the Earth as the Earth orbits the Sun.

 

Earth and Space Science
The Universe
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

3.    Describe the characteristics of Earth and its orbit about the sun (e.g., three-fourths of Earth's surface is covered by a layer of water [some of it frozen], the entire planet surrounded by a thin blanket of air, elliptical orbit, tilted axis and spherical planet). 

What are the characteristics of Earth?

Earth: It's JUST RIGHT for living things!

  • 75% of Earth's surface is covered with water
  • Earth has a blanket of breathable air

NASA - "As seen from space, one of the most unique features of our home planet is the water, in both liquid and frozen forms, that covers approximately 75% of the Earth's surface. Believed to have initially arrived on the surface through the emissions of ancient volcanoes, geologic evidence suggests that large amounts of water have likely flowed on Earth for the past 3.8 billion years, most of its existence. As a vital substance that sets the Earth apart from the rest of the planets in our solar system, water is a necessary ingredient for the development and nourishment of life."

 

Other characteristics:

  • Earth is spherical
  • Earth is tilted on its axis by 23.5 degrees

Earth has a tilted axis. Because of this tilt, the different hemispheres sometimes get direct rays (more energy: summer) and sometimes get indirect rays (less energy: winter). Close to the equator, the Earth gets direct rays year-round. The tilt causing the direct/indirect rays is the reason for the seasons!

 

 

Earth and Space Science
The Universe
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

  4.  Explain that stars are like the sun, some being smaller and some larger, but so far away that they look like points of light. 

Why do the stars look like tiny points of light?

The pinpoints of light that we see in the night sky are stars. Stars are giant balls of gas in space that shine through the darkness. Our ability to see the stars depends on how bright they are, their size, and also how far away they are from our solar system. We can only see the stars at night because our own star, the sun, is so bright during the day when our half of the Earth is facing it.

The Sun is the only star in our solar system. It is an average star. Earth and all the planets in our solar system orbit it.

 

"Powers of Ten" (Video

Our star, the sun ("Sol"), shines brightly as the only star in our solar system, preventing us from seeing other stars during the day. It is relatively close to Earth compared to the other stars of the universe.

 

Most of the universe is empty space: SPACE! To get a look at the vast distance of space see the video above.

 


"Planets and Stars: A Size Comparison" (Video
)
 

Our star, the sun ("Sol") is an average sized star.
Planets and stars come in very different sizes.

 

Earth and Space Science
Earth Systems
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

  5.  Explain how the supply of many non-renewable resources is limited and can be extended through reducing, reusing and recycling but cannot be extended indefinitely.

 

Non-renewable resources (for example fossil fuels and minerals) are formed over millions of years! We need to protect these resources by reducing what we use (use only what we need), and reuse the things we can, and recycle what we donít need anymore.

 Reduce, Reuse, Recycle!

Earth and Space Science
Earth Systems
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

  6.  Investigate ways Earth's renewable resources (e.g., fresh water, air, wildlife and trees) can be maintained.

Some resources like fresh water, air, wildlife, and trees rely upon us to use them wisely. If we do, they will be available for our use. If we donít use them wisely, we are in danger of limiting their supply.
  • The amount of water on Earth never changes, but we might change the amount that we can use in a certain area. We might pollute it to the point that we canít use it, or pump too much out of a large underground reservoir that took thousands of years to build up that supply.
  • The air in our atmosphere must be protected from pollution that harms living things.
  • Wildlife can be impacted by our choices. If an animal species is over-hunted or if its habitat is destroyed, its population may decline or it may become extinct. It is our responsibility to make wise decisions on how to protect animals and their habitats.
 
Life Science
Diversity and Interdependence of Life
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Explain how almost all kinds of animals' food can be traced back to plants.

Animals do not have the ability to produce their own food. Animals must get their energy by eating plants, or by eating other animals that have eaten plants.


Graphic from Princeton Ecology Education

Life Science
Diversity and Interdependence of Life
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

2. Describe the role of producers in the transfer of energy entering ecosystems as sunlight to chemical energy through photosynthesis.

 
All living things get energy from food. It begins with the sun. The sun provides heat and light energy which plants use to make their food in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place when plants use sunlight in order to produce sugars. These sugars can then be used by the plant as food.

Graphic from FactMonster.com

Life Science
Diversity and Interdependence of Life
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

3. Trace the organization of simple food chains and food webs (e.g., producers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and decomposers).

 


Graphic from Princeton Ecology Education

 

Life Science
Diversity and Interdependence of Life
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

4. Summarize that organisms can survive only in ecosystems in which their needs can be met (e.g., food, water, shelter, air, carrying capacity and waste disposal). The world has different ecosystems and distinct ecosystems support the lives of different types of organisms.

 

 

An ecosystem is a community of living things and their nonliving environment. It is a system of living things and the environment in which they live. All ecosystems provide the basic needs of the organisms that live there Ė food, shelter, and everything else they need.

Examples of ecosystems include forests, deserts, rainforests, grasslands, arctic, freshwater, marine, and more. An ecosystem in a warm wet rainforest is very different from an ecosystem in a cold, dry desert. An ecosystem in salty ocean water is different from one in a freshwater lake. Different kinds of organisms live in different kinds of ecosystems but the organisms in each ecosystem find the food, water, temperature, shelter, and space that they need.

Life Science
Diversity and Interdependence of Life
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

5. Support how an organism's patterns of behavior are related to the nature of that organism's ecosystem, including the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and resources, and the changing physical characteristics of the ecosystem.

 

The ecosystem must supply the needs of organisms, such as food, water, temperature, oxygen, and space..

All ecosystems have a limited amount of resources. The organisms living there must compete for what they need. Competition helps to keep populations steady and helps to maintain a balanced environment.

When organisms do not get enough food, space, or light from their ecosystem, they respond by reproducing less, moving, adapting, or dying out.

 

Life Science
Diversity and Interdependence of Life
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students

6. Analyze how all organisms, including humans, cause changes in their ecosystems and how these changes can be beneficial, neutral or detrimental (e.g., beaver ponds, earthworm burrows, grasshoppers eating plants, people planting and cutting trees and people introducing a new species).

 

 
All organisms, including humans cause changes in their ecosystems. These changes can be beneficial (good), neutral (neither good nor bad), or detrimental (bad).
  • beneficial
    • Worms aerate the soil.
    • People plant trees.
    • People set aside areas of land as parks
  • detrimental
    • Swarms of grasshoppers can eat huge amounts of grasses and other plants, including farmersí crops like hay or corn.
    • Humans use very large amounts of resources, such as water and trees.
    • People build towns and cities where once there were once forests and prairies.
    • People bring plants and animals into new areas where they compete with native species and sometimes cause them to die out.

     

 
Physical Science
Nature of Energy    
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Define temperature as the measure of thermal energy and describe the way it is measured.

Thermal energy, or heat, is the energy of moving particles in an object.

Temperature is the measure of thermal energy. It measures how fast particles are moving in matter.

Know the difference:
- heat is energy
- temperature is a measure of thermal energy

The more heat, the faster the particles move. Cold things have slow-moving molecules, while hot things have fast-moving molecules.

The most common tool for measuring thermal energy (heat) is a thermometer.

  • When the colored liquid inside the thermometer heats up, the particles of the liquid move faster and move farther apart. That causes the liquid to take up more space. The colored liquid rises in the tube, and thermometer shows a higher temperature.
  • When the air is cooler than the liquid in the thermometer, the particles of the liquid move more slowly and get closer together causing the liquid to take up less space. The colored liquid moves down the tube and shows a lower temperature.

 

 

Physical Science
Nature of Energy
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Trace how thermal energy can transfer from one object to another by conduction.

Heat always flows from a warmer object to a cooler one.  When things that are at different temperatures touch each other, heat energy moves from the hotter thing to the colder thing.

Conduction is when thermal energy is transferred from one solid object to another solid object through direct touching. An example is the heat in a cookie sheet moving up through the pan into the cookies.

Physical Science
Nature of Energy  
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Describe that electrical current in a circuit can produce thermal energy, light, sound and/or magnetic forces.

Electrical current in a circuit can produce thermal energy, light, sound, and/or magnetic forces. These energies can transform from one form of energy into another.

 Have FUN learning about
Light, Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism
by clicking here:

http://www.learningscience.org/psc1clightheatelectricitymagnetism.htm

 

Physical Science
Nature of Energy  
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Trace how electrical current travels by creating a simple electric circuit that will light a bulb.

Electric current is the movement of electrons through a conducting material.

For an electric current to happen, there must be a circuit. A circuit is a closed path or loop around which an electric current flows.

 

 

 

 

Physical Science
Nature of Energy   
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Explore and summarize observations of the transmission, bending (refraction) and reflection of light.

Light travels at 186,000 miles per second. That makes it the fastest thing in the universe. It is almost a million times faster than sound which is why we see lightning before we hear the thunder that comes with it. It takes the Sun's light about eight minutes to reach earth.

Light travels in straight lines called light rays. Light continues to travel in straight lines until it hits other media or objects. When light hits something, what happens to light depends on the object.

  1. Opaque objects block light making a shadow. An example would be a book, a wall, a person, etc.
  2. Translucent objects allow some light to pass through. An example would be wax paper.
  3. Transparent objects allow all the light to pass through in straight lines. An example would be clear glass windows.

Light can be

  1. Absorbed. When a light ray is absorbed by an object, it changes to heat energy. Dark colors absorb more light rays than light colors.
  2. Reflected. When a light ray hits an object and bounces off, it is called reflection. Mirrors are a good example of objects that reflect light. Because mirrors reflect all of the light wavelengths, you can see yourself
  3. Refracted. When a light ray bends, it is called refraction. Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This happens most often when a ray of light passes from one medium to another, such as air to water, or sunlight through a prism.

Physical Science
Nature of Energy   
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Describe and summarize observations of the transmission, reflection, and absorption of sound.

 
Sound is a kind of energy made by vibrations. When something vibrates, the molecules pass the vibrations on to the next molecule which passes it on to the next in what is called a sound wave. This keeps going until they run out of energy. If your ear is within range of the vibrations, you hear the sound.

Transmission. Sound travels through all sorts of things like water, wood, metal, and air Ė solids, liquids, and gases. Sound travels fastest through solids because the molecules in solids are closest. Liquids do not transmit sound very well, but gases are the poorest transmitters of sound.

Reflection. In an echo, sound waves travel in one direction, hit something, and bounce back (reflect). Thatís why you hear the sound again later

Absorption. When sound waves are trapped or are not able to travel any further, they are absorbed.


Picture shows Bell Laboratories making sound waves visible.

Physical Science
Nature of Energy    
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Describe that changing the rate of vibration can vary the pitch of a sound.

When the vibrations are fast, you hear a high-pitched note. When the vibrations are slow, it creates a low-pitched note.

By filling bottles with various levels of water and tapping the bottles with a metal spoon, different pitches of sound are produced. The more water (the longer the water column), the lower the pitch. This holds true for piano strings, too. The longer the piano strings, the lower the pitch.

   

 
Science and Technology
Understanding Technology
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Investigate positive and negative impacts of human activity and technology on the environment.

 
 
Science and Technology
Abilities to Do Technological Design
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Revise an existing design used to solve a problem based on peer review.

 
 
Science and Technology
Abilities to Do Technological Design
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Explain how the solution to one problem may create other problems.

 
 
 
Science Inquiry
Doing Scientific Inquiry
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Select and safely use the appropriate tools to collect data when conducting investigations and communicating findings to others (e.g., thermometers, timers, balances, spring scales, magnifiers, microscopes and other appropriate tools).

 
 
Science Inquiry
Doing Scientific Inquiry
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Evaluate observations and measurements made by other people and identify reasons for any discrepancies.
     

 
 
Science Inquiry
Doing Scientific Inquiry
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Use evidence and observations to explain and communicate the results of investigations.

 
 
Science Inquiry
Doing Scientific Inquiry
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Identify one or two variables in a simple experiment.

 
Science Inquiry
Doing Scientific Inquiry
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Identify potential hazards and/or precautions involved in an investigation.

 
Science Inquiry
Doing Scientific Inquiry
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Explain why results of an experiment are sometimes different (e.g., because of unexpected differences in what is being investigated, unrealized differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation was carried out, and because of errors in observations).

 
 
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Nature of Science
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Summarize how conclusions and ideas change as new knowledge is gained.

 
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Nature of Science
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Develop descriptions, explanations and models using evidence to defend/support findings.

 
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Nature of Science
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Explain why an experiment must be repeated by different people or at different times or places and yield consistent results before the results are accepted.

 
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Nature of Science
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Identify how scientists use different kinds of ongoing investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer (e.g., observations of things or events in nature, data collection and controlled experiments).

 
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Ethical Practices
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Keep records of investigations and observations that are understandable weeks or months later.

 
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Science and Society
5th Grade
Ohio Standard
Explanation ....  Websites for Students
  1. Identify a variety of scientific and technological work that people of all ages, backgrounds and groups perform.

 
 

Online Practice Ohio Achievement Tests

Students,

You can see or even take a practice test online all on your own! Just click on the link below, then choose Grade 5 Science test!

I want to do the Ohio Achievement online practice test!

 I want to review and take fun quizzes on BBC Bitesize!

 I want to have fun on the Science Study Table!

Other online practice tests:

More skills practice on Internet4Classrooms

 

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